George W Bush Executive Agreements

Executive orders are listed below, under numbers 13198-13488, President`s Memorands, President`s Proclamations, President`s Provisions, and Presidential Communications signed by U.S. President George W. Bush. A presidential communication or a seizure order of the President may also be issued. [4] [5] The most recent executive branch, the President`s Memoranda for National Security,2 operate as implementing regulations, but are only a matter of national security. You go back to President Harry S. Administrative orders are published in the federal register in forms other than those of executive orders or proclamations called administrative injunctions when they are reproduced in CFR 3 compilations. [2] A National Archives research guide defines administrative orders as «undanced signed documents by which the President of the United States carries out the administrative activities of the federal government» that «include but are not limited to memoranda, communications, dispositions, letters, and messages.» [3] Modern presidents conclude 95% of their international agreements as executive agreements, a unilateral instrument and not as treaties, a power shared with the Senate. An in-depth study of the use of executive agreements versus treaties in the twenty-first century shows considerable differences in the way the Obama administration concludes its international agreements compared to the Bush administration. Both Bush and Obama have made far fewer contracts than executive agreements; Obama, however, has used far fewer treaties than any other modern president, including Bush.

Both presidents have used executive agreements to conclude a wide range of international agreements, from secular agreements to really important agreements. I argue that Obama`s unique reliance on executive agreements is a significant change, due in large part to polarization in the Senate and the attractiveness of unilateral authority. To understand the importance of this change in foreign policy, I make a comprehensive analysis of the hundreds of agreements signed between 2005 and 2012. More than 1,900 executive agreements are coded on a large number of variables, including theme, contractors, agency, etc. The evidence supports the idea that twenty-first-century presidents, especially Obama, violate the norms developed in the twentieth century, that the most important agreements are concluded in the form of treaties or with the direct contribution of Congress. The implications of this change are discussed. Continued: EO 11183, 3 October 1964; EO 11145, March 7, 1964; EO 11287, 28 June 1966; EO 12131, 4 May 1979; EO 12196, 26 February 1980; EO 12216, 18 June 1980; EO 12345, February 2, 1982; EO 12367, 15 June 1982; EO 12382, 13 September 1982; EO 12900, 22 February 1994; EO 12905, 25 March 1994; EO 12994, 21 March 1996; EO 13021, 19 October 1996; Revocation: EO 13075, 19 February 1998; EO 13080, 7 April 1998; EO 13090, 29 June 1998; EO 13134, 12 August 1999 (in part); EO 13168, 22 September 2000; Replaced by: EO 13138, 30 September 1999 (in part); replaced by: EO 13316, 17 September 2003 After the signing of the Improvement and Reauthorization Act 2005, as amended by: EO 13261 of 19 March 2002;; ; See: Memorandum of 12 February 2003 (68 FR 10141) Disposition of Executive Orders by President George W. . . .