National communication reports are often several hundred pages long and deal with the measures taken by a country to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its vulnerabilities and effects due to climate change.  National communications are prepared in accordance with the guidance agreed by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. National intended contributions (NDCs), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standardised structure and are subject to technical review by experts. The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those adopted in other international agreements. While the system does not carry financial penalties, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking the progress of individual nations and promoting a sense of global group pressure, which discourages any hesitation between countries that might consider it. It maintains the commitment of industrialized countries to remain the leaders in financing, but for the first time, «other parties» are invited to provide voluntary financial support. This invites industrialized countries to establish a specific roadmap to reach the annual goal of $100 billion in climate finance by 2020. William Nordhaus of Yale University writes for Foreign Affairs and reflects on how to address the failure of climate efforts around the world. While both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement aim to tackle climate change, there are important differences between them.
As climate change promotes temperature rise and extreme weather events, it endangers our air, water and food. spread of the disease; and endangers our home and safety. We are facing a growing public health crisis. Among other things, countries need to report on their greenhouse gas inventories and progress against their targets, so that external experts can assess their success. . . .